Unbenanntes Dokument

 

During the past years, Brazil has been mentioned internationally as a one of the so-called BRICs (Brazil, Russia, India and China). These countries have been taking increasing space in the economical and political global scenarios in the XXI century. The facts that they possess a vast territory and stand among the highest populated countries increase their relevance within the United Nations. Besides, three of them constitute nuclear powers and two of them belong to the United Nations Security Council.

Brazil has significantly participated in forums such as WTO and UNO, representing central political articulation and stability to Latin America and in the structuring and growth of MERCOSUL (Brazil, Argentina, Uruguay, Paraguay and Venezuela). Once again among the ten greatest economies of the world, the country has launched ambitious poverty-fighting programs helping more than 20 million people in the last years, such as the “Bolsa Família” (Familienstipendium) Program or and its complements).

Nevertheless, Latin American countries are far from generating structural funds as the “European Social Fund” to assist specific demands of big cities as Sao Paulo and Buenos Aires. The commitments are restricted to commercial areas and bring nothing but slow and scarce advances to education or infra-structure and to the integration of systems related to these areas.

In what concerns the E-9, the group of the world’s most populated countries which have gathered in the New Delhi Summit (1993), some aspects of the document produced at the end of the summit deserve to be mentioned:

2.2 “Education is the pre-eminent means for promoting universal human values, the quality of human resources, and respect for cultural diversity”;

2.4 “The content and methods of education must be developed to serve the basic learning needs of individuals and societies, to empower them to address their most pressing problems — combating poverty, raising productivity, improving living conditions, and protecting the environment (…)”

2.8 “Education is, and must be, a societal responsibility, encompassing governments, families, communities and non-governmental organizations alike; it requires the commitment and participation of all, in a grand alliance that transcends diverse opinions and political positions.”

About the already mentioned 4 BRICs, which met in New Delhi Summit, it is of value to highlight some social, economical and educational indicators:

 

BRAZIL

RUSSIA

ÍNDIA

CHINA

Total population

187 mi

144 mi

1.134 bi

1.312 bi

Life expectancy

71

65

64

72

Infant mortality rate

31

14

56

23

Gdp per capta

US$ 8.402

US$ 10.845

US$ 3.452

US$ 6.757

Poverty (% of pop on less than $2 a day)

21

12

80

35

Children of primary school age who are out of school

04

08

06

Pupil/teacher ratio

21

17

40

18

Literacy rates(15-24 years)

88.6

99,4

61,0

90,9

Source: UNESCO/UIS

The greatest challenge that the BRICs may pose to the world is that, unlikely the others countries which have built the “Welfare-States” in the XX century, a phenomenon that happened within the European countries for example; these countries place convergent features, such as: vast territorial extension, significant inhabitant rates, tendency for economical growth higher than the rich countries and increasing role in the political and economical global scenarios. A negative fact is that, while they grow in importance within the global scenario, and, therefore become increasingly empowered, there is a considerable amount of its population who remain in poverty or extreme poverty at the bottom of the social pyramid. This could reflect a future tendency: The empowerment of highly-populated and large countries, whose significant amount of population is still living in grinding poverty.

The distinction between substantive freedom and instrumental freedom, both referred by Sen (2001), may contribute to the study of the highly-populated countries phenomenon. According to Sen (2001:32) the concept of the human development employs the freedom among people as a basic concept “drawing attention to the type of life they treasure (…)”. There is there a discussion clearly associated to its capabilities.

But besides taking into consideration Sen’s (2001) concept of Substantive Freedoms, it is also necessary to think of the three existing levels of control in the relation individuals-society outlined by Elias (1994): the social control, control over nature and self-control.

Regardless of figuring, in the future, among the poor countries or not, the international cooperation in education tends to expand. Heyneman (2005) has argued about the international cooperation in the field of education and drew attention not only to the raise of interchanges between national teaching systems among several countries, but also to the necessity of a reform on international organizations to respond to the new demands for information in the educational field. However circumscribed to the OECD, the author’s studies create room to the thinking about the exchanges and interchanges among the education systems in a global context. Yet in incipient levels, limited to emphasize the globalization as inevitable, setting it apart from the ideas of an educational pragmatism or imperialism, this author points out three problems which would require the reform on international institutions in the educational field:

  1. The uneven mandate distribution;

  2. The double use of institutions;

  3. The disparity of technical and financial capabilities.

Ramirez (2002:93) indicated a World Educational Order which sustained a World System of Education, which would have been forged in Europe in the XVIII and XIX centuries, and would have been spread through the planet as a World Model, generating “commonalities” engendered by “modern doctrines of progress-with-development and justice-with-equality.”

The thesis by the Stanford panel have, in a certain way, been battled by Schriewer (2000:327) who, stressing the ground-ideas of the Transnational Interrelationship Networks, and finding support in the Theory of the Social Systems, by Niklas Luhmann, proposes that the countries represent world-systems, as an opposition to the idea of a homogenizing structures characterized by a World Education system. Schriewer tries to contextualize the idea of a World System, by making a critical-historical review of the concept, based on Wallerstein, demonstrating that in this discussion are opposed: “supranational integration and intranational diversification” and “global spread of standardized educational models (regardless of differing societal settings) and the surprising diversity of sociolcultural interrelationship networks (in spite of universalist assumptions of grand theories.)”.

The presented introduction had the purpose of highlighting the importance of the 4 BRICs, but also to highlight the incipience and weaknesses of theoretical horizons to comparatively analyze highly-populated and vast territory societies - stained by an uneven and unbalanced educational system. Such societies find an extensive amount of its citizens facing social risk and underprivileged conditions. It is necessary to state that the Stanford theses as well as the Berlin Group analyse do not bring enough theoretical support to the new questions related to the 4 BRICs.

Perhaps it is important to recognize the necessity of specific studies about these countries, emphasizing that they face an accommodation to the global environment process which can, and should be, measured or observed under a comparative perspective. One of the last decade’s innovations that allow such a comparative analysis between countries is exactly the UNDP, United Nations Development Program.

Within each of these countries there are several accommodation movements taking place in the field of education. In Brazil, apart from the unprecedented advances in the performance of both national and international NGOs in conducting social programs and actions, two events stick out: The 10172/2001 law in favor of children’s entrance in school and the implementation of Full-time school in different historical moments and different states (Rio de Janeiro, Distrito Federal and Sao Paulo).

To this text, the implementation of full-time school in Brazil, more precisely in the state of Sao Paulo, will be understood as a movement of accommodation or orientation of the Brazilian national education system to the World Educational Order, in the extent of external influences and pressures, as for instance the Platoon System from the USA in the case of Anísio Teixeira in the decade of 30 of the XX century. How far would this implementation correspond to what the Stanford University called the “modern doctrines of progress-with-development and justice-with-equality”, still remain uncertain due to the absence of systematic studies focused on countries with Brazil’s profile.

Next, a historical retrospective of education in Brazil will be presented followed by a description of the process of the implementation of full-time school in the state of Sao Paulo, whose capital is the city of Sao Paulo, in the country’s southeast.

The social-historical context which has led Brazil to the current situation of its national education system.

Brazil is constituted in a federative republic composed of 27 states where it is possible to see enormous economic and social diversity. The country, that occupies 44% of South American territory, is a former colony of Portugal. Its independence from Portugal came in 1822, but it remained a slave empire up to 1888. The Brazilian republic started in 1889; however, a Ministry of Education has not been created until the 30s of the XX century.

The XX century was marked by long periods in which the country was controlled by dictatorships. The laws of Education and its reforms (1930, 1947, 1961, 1965, 1971, and 1996) reflect the advances and setbacks in the field of politics, social issues and institutional organization in education. One of the most remarkable references about this debate in the country was, and is still, Cunha (1975, 1995).

Up until the middle of the XX century Brazil remained as a predominantly rural country, holding huge illiteracy and infant mortality rates, having its primitive economy based on coffee foreign trade. The second half of the XX century is a period in which the South region (Rio Grande do Sul, Parana and Sta. Catarina states) and Southeast (states of Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Espirito Santo and Minas Gerais) are consolidated as industrial states, hosting the first automotive industries, still in the 50s.

Currently, the South and Southeast not only are the productive base of Brazil, but also home of the largest cities in the country, such as Sao Paulo, with 10 million people, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte. An enormous amount of immigrants from Europe have come to the Southeast within the XIX and XX centuries. Just to set an example, by the end of the XIX century, the city of Sao Paulo had 80% of its population from immigrants (mainly Italians). The Globalization Atlas (Atlas der Globalisierung) classifies the cities of Sao Paulo and Rio de Janeiro among the planet’s cities with the highest population growth. This rather abrupt evasion from people from rural areas to the cities, which can be presently identified in India and China, has already happened in Brazil during the so-called years of the “Brazilian miracle” – the seventies of the XX century, in which occasion Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo received millions of people every year. This population enlargement without the developing of an adequate system of social protection constitutes major facts that led to the present social disparity. Such disparity, have long been studied and debated between teachers and theorists by means of texts. Now they have more strongly emerged, represented by images in polemic prize-winning Brazilian films in the later years, such as City of God (2002), The Elite Squad (2007) and Pro Dia Nascer Feliz (2006) among others.

The teaching chains in the Southeast of Brazil, where the state of Sao Paulo is located, have been, through several years of military dictatorship until the nineties, deficient in terms of places for children; adolescents had to cope with the disqualifying of the professionals of education, with a huge salary decrease and the destruction of the basic education teacher social status. Since the promulgation of the last Law of Directives and Bases of Education (LDB9394/1996) and also being pressured by MEC (Education Ministry) through the FUNDEP/FUNDEB mechanisms (Basic Education Developing and Maintaining Funds) as well as because of foreign forums such as the World Conference on Education for All in Jomtien, Thailand, the state teaching systems have managed to increase the number of student enrollments in Primary and Secondary School (from first to the eighth grades), reaching 96% without, however, assuring the permanence of these students who left before the high school.

The structure of the teaching systems in Brazil (Elementary, Secondary and High School) have only met consolidation in the XX century, yet important issues still remain, such as: school evasion, low enrolling and graduating rates in high school, increase of violence in periphery schools of big cities like Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte e Recife and low teaching quality.

Just 35% is the rate of adolescents in school ages who actually attend secondary school in Brazil. This means that a significant percentage of youngsters drop out the learning system after Middle school, due to pressures of a weak market that keeps a good part of the young population unemployed as some kind of a backup army. Pochman (1998, 1999, 2001, 2003, 2004) features as one of the most important researchers about youth and work issue in Brazil.

The Buid of Youth Vulnerability Indicator (IVJ) has shown that the young people who live in the periphery of cities as Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte among others need specific public policies. In the city of Sao Paulo the IVJ started to be measured in 2000 and, at that time, it was not unusual that some districts held homicide rates of young population hanging around 100 or even 200 deaths per each 100,000 inhabitants. Currently this rate has fallen down to 64 deaths per each 100,000 inhabitants on the poorer city districts and 25 deaths per each 100,000 inhabitants on the wealthier districts. This receding rate is due to public politics, starting from government alliances with the civil society regarding social controlling actions towards the youth.

During president Lula’s age, some important changes occurred in the education system: the creation of FUNDEB (Basic education development and maintenance- valuing of education professional Fund), the enrolling of 6 year-olds, the generalization of social programs to support adolescents in the working, cultural, arts and education fields, the proceeding of municipalization of the teaching and the increase in number of students in higher education through the incentives and scholarships given by programs like PROUNI (University for all Program) and other programs extensions.

These changes in the country led to some determining factors:

  1. The boosting of partnerships between the civil society (represented by NGOs) and governments in social and educational programs in the municipal, state and federal levels;

  2. An increasing necessity to qualify professionals in the educational field, to answer to the demand of professionals for the programs and didactic activities;

  3. The developing or mastering of hybrid professional fields, such as Social Pedagogy, and the necessity of drawing together organizational culture among government and other areas;

  4. The virtual re-emerging of Art and Culture as professional fields and strategic teaching-learning environment for children, adolescents and young adults.

The full-time school in Brazil

The idea about full-time school grew in Brazil with Anísio Teixeira within the context of assimilating the New School. As it is well-known, one of the most significant characteristics of the New School under the influence of John Dewey and Progressivism is the student’s autonomy, carrying radical changes to the transmission-assimilation process. Nonetheless, starting from Chaves analysis (2002), Anísio Teixeira has gone further. This educator from Bahia-Brazil, then in charge of the education system of the federal District (the city of Rio de Janeiro, before the decade of 30 in the XX century) has innovated on concentrating his actions in the so-called “Grupos Escolares”, which were urban schools who had broken with the tradition of the isolated one-class-one-teacher schools. With the support of the 3763 Decree of February first 1932, Teixeira has created in the federal district five lab-schools inspired by the American system Platoon, which itself has found inspiration in “work” “study” and “recreation”, our quotations.

These schools, surpassing the idea of school education in a restricted schedule, have added cultural activities, sports, games and brought with them an idea beyond whole time, but rather of whole education for the child and the adolescent.

The lab-school idea of Teixeira, still according to Chaves (2002:52), implicated the transposition of the teaching-learning process to outside of the traditional classroom, transforming other spaces into learning environments, such as: swimming pools, carpentry, workshop mechanics and gardens.

In the end of the 80s, an important reference in terms of the study of full-time school in the country is the work organized by Paro et al (1988).

When making a historical retrospect, the authors emphasize that the idea of full-time schools first reached privileged and middle class families, which, guided by the ideas of the New School, enrolled their children in these spaces. What it is observed in this study is that the full-time school attain some importance in the years of the “New State” under Getúlio Vargas government, to later practically disappear, reappearing as practices of public politics just in years 80, particularly under the Government of the State of Rio de Janeiro, under governor Leonel Brizola, right after the end of the Brazilian military dictatorship.

At that moment, the re-emerging of the full-time school would be directed to a specific demand of education for the popular layers, particularly in the largest Brazilian cities, which already during the 60’s were faced with an enormous human mass departure (Exodus) of the agricultural areas towards them. It is, overall, for this part of the population, the poor and the extremely poor, that the full-time school is useful in the 80’s, being practically unable to face the main problem of the Brazilian systems of education: the absence of a universal education for all.

Although Paro et al tend to see the reappearing of the full-time school in the 80’s as consolidation of a “Total Institution” or as a space of "segregation of the dominated ones", today it is clear that the phenomenon of its sprouting should be brought up to date and perceived beyond a problem of social layers. This space of "segregation of the dominated ones" also can be seen as a space of dialogue between school and society in which a sort of subjects as gender, ethic group and organizational culture can be discussed. It is clear, on the other hand, that one of the main problems for the build up of the full-time school in a country with a great slice of its population in the poverty (21%) is at the same time a political problem that has to do with democracy.

The full-time school cannot be seen, therefore, only as a weak solution for the problem of the "minors", as it was commonly seen among Marxist-oriented critics in Brazil during the 80’s. Still during the 80’s, the same authors who considered the full-time school as a type of “Total Institution” to segregate the dominated ones, also recognized in them an answer to the new division of work which increased the number of women in the work force and pushed millions of Brazilians from the rural areas to the cities.

During the 80’s, by enforcement of a left government in the state of Rio de Janeiro, the so-called CIEPS (Integrated Centers of Public Education) had been implanted. The establishment of the CIEPs, under the government of Leonel Brizola, is directly connected to the movement of redemocratization of the country after the end of the military dictatorship, with the amnesty and return of the opposition leaders. Therefore, it is understandable that the idea of the full-time school has been away from the educational public policies in a country marked with dictatorial governments throughout the XX century highlighting, in this case, the intrinsic relation among education, human rights and democracy.

In a short description, the CIEP can be considered as a school in which there is a political-pedagogical project that joins actions in the field of education, health and culture. Although they have been also organized under other shapes/versions in the two periods where they were constructed, at least in the later stage the learning was organized with the disciplines of the core curriculum (formal education) during the morning, and the activities such as P. E. (physical education), music, theater and recreation during the afternoon. As the main reference of full-time school in the country, the original project of CIEP featured a Health Center (with medical and dental assistance), housing for pupils and other aspects as the Gratuity of “Priority Fulfillment” (GLP) paid to the teachers so that they could fulfill the 40 hour- weekly journey in only one school unit.

Cavaliere (2002) analyzes the two PEE (Special Programs of Education) in the years of (1983-1986) and (1991-1994), in Rio de Janeiro. In this period, according to his study, 506 CIEPs in the state of Rio de Janeiro had been created. The author also emphasizes that the CIEPS come out because of the demand of an urban Brazil that did not know what to do with the children and youngsters in the biggest Brazilian cities who did not fit in the profile of the schools that ruled in the country at that time. This author also identified as the major problem of the CIEPS the "lack of qualified teachers". She associates this problem to the disappearance of the "artistic and cultural activities at school", emphasizing that from years 60 of the XX century, "great masses of the population had been schooled", with the disappearance of such activities. In fact, this will explain why the insertion and maintenance of the cultural entertainers in the CIEPS were, and so is, complicated, being this fact directly associated to the organizational culture and to the training of the workforce to operate inside the education systems of the country.

Paro et all highlights that the educators “continuing education” at the CIEPs took place mainly through the PO (guiding teacher) and the PC (coordinating teacher). These two professionals were the main connection with the Pedagogical Training Consultants (CPT), the central department of the State’s Education Secretary. The authors also underline that, however there was a speech of “working from the point of view of the student” in order to legitimate the innovative pedagogic proposal,and also establishing some concept of autonomy in relation to the student, the teach-learning practice was actually centralized in the teacher.

Coelho (2002:135) argues about the teachers “continuing education”, the one that succeeds its initial graduation (Erster Abschluss, Studium), that is, the “undergraduate” course. It regards a research carried about teachers who can be trained while carries out its professional activity. There are, to this author, two conceptions around the idea of continuing education in Brazil: "the first one noticeable by an ideological world’s point of view, reproductive, focused in qualification and recycling blocks and superficial training "altogether in time and space”. One second conception would refer to "an extended social vision of world" pointing towards questions as “the professional identity and the teaching experience". This author calls attention to the LDB 9394/96 that stimulates, by means of its Article 34 Paragraph 2º and Article 67 of the same law, the "gradual increasing teacher’s time of permanence at school" and "Primary and middle Education gradually provided as full-time". Her reflections argue that, in order to guarantee an integrated work between formal syllabus and cultural, artistic and physical activities, both the pupil and the teacher should stay full-time in school.

Monteiro (2002) highlights three aspects that affect the experiences in “continuing education”:

  1. The administrative “zigzag”; Cunha (1991) apud Monteiro (2002);

  2. The disqualifying of teacher’s experience and knowledge;

  3. The conflict between administrative measures and pedagogical planning.

The author identifies three perspectives in the “continuing education” course to perform at the CIEPs: time, critical reflexion and experience.

Furthermore, Monteiro (2002:164) emphasizes the pioneer project that the CIEPs used to propose when aggregating several professionals and knowledge areas: “The teaching work had the classroom teacher as their link, being extended and deepened considering the different means of expression - scenic, musical, plastic, cinematographic, verbal and written, and even computer science, through the activities with the other professionals (cultural entertainers, video-educators, physical-education teacher), all based on the effective inclusion of the local culture into the school culture ".

The education system and the full-time school in the state of Sao Paulo

The state of Sao Paulo, with its more than 40 million inhabitants, is responsible for approximately 1/3 of the wealth of Brazil. The state shows indicators of better human development, and therefore, from the economic point of view it can be compared with other regions of the world. We find, according to the UNDP indicators, income: 0,77, life expectancy: 0.77 and education: 0,90. Five cities in the state of Sao Paulo are among the highest HDI (Human development Index) of the country.

The system of Basic Education (primary, middle or junior and secondary schools) in the state of Sao Paulo holds 14,046 elementary and middle schools; 5,500 High schools; 424,000 primary, junior and high school teachers; and 1,185,088 pupils in college or universities, being more than 1 million of them registered in private institutions.

The management of the basic education is shared among the city halls (Stadtverwaltungen) of the more than 645 cities of the state. There are also secondary and technical schools, called STS (State Technique Schools). The so-called S System, of national range, equivalent to the Dual Education system in Germany, however private, has great relevance in the state due to the industrial and commercial concentration in this part of the country. In terms of professional education, Lula’s Government has opened approximately 300 technical schools throughout the country.

The public education system in the country works with cycles, in what concerns primary and secondary schools. There are evaluations only at the end of the 4th and 8th years.Until the approval the law 9496/96 teachers were required only limited and precarious education to teaching. From 1996 on, all the Sao Paulo state public school teachers were required to attend to undergraduate school and have a major (diplompädagogik) in education. As a consequence, there was a rush of these professionals to the Faculties of Education, mainly in private institutions, once Brazil face a serious deficit of public or state colleges and universities.

The state of Sao Paulo implanted, in the end of 2005, 150 full-time schools, with the purpose of benefiting up to 140 thousand pupils of primary and middle education (1st to 8th grades) in the state. Currently, there are 480 schools in the state of Sao Paulo, which supply three daily meals to the students of primary and secondary schools and offer 8 hours of daily activities. During the morning, the activities of the basic syllabus take place, which are complemented with artistic and cultural activities in the afternoon. According to the full-time school coordination, the budgetary complementation for the accomplishment of the activities is available by means of projects that need to be approved by the CENP (Pedagogical Rules Secretary) and by the Education councils (approximately 90 in the state of Sao Paulo).

The activities are offered to the students in the afternoon as curricular workshops. The teachers belong to the school system itself, or, when they are not available, pupils on their last year of the university. They present projects that are chosen by the school principals, however they are not paid. These projects are maintained by the Secretaries and Coordinations that also supply periodic training in workshops developed inside of the Education Coordinations ( 90 in the state of Sao Paulo).

According to the Diretrizes Curriculares of the full-time school (2006:14-15) in São Paulo, the objectives of the curricular workshops are:

  1. "To educate and assure the construction of the student’s positive image";

  2. "To fulfill the different necessities of learning";

  3. "To promote the feeling of relevancy and the development of attitudes of commitment and responsibility towards the school and the community, providing him with the abilities and necessary skills to the performance of youthful protagonist and social participation";

  4. "To promote a peaceful culture through the development of attitudes of self-respect, mutual respect, solidarity, justice and dialogue".

The activities of the full-time school in the state of Sao Paulo are divided in 4 types:

  1. Language and Mathematics

  2. Arts

  3. Sports and motor control activities

  4. Social participation

Among the offered artistic activities are: Drama, Dance, Music and Fine Arts. These activities are offered by teachers who already belong to the education system of Sao Paulo state, who, as previously mentioned, are chosen by the principals of schools. There is a shortage of professionals with a major or specific graduation in Drama, Dance, Music and Arts, what directly harms the quality of artistic work and activities developed with the children and the adolescents, revealing the school weakness in developing teacher’s professional improvement through a consistent program of continuing or in-service education.

The Diretrizes Curriculares of the full-time school (Sao Paulo: 2006) displays as a desirable profile for teachers in the Curricular Workshops in the area of Arts:

A- “Major in Arts (Hoschschulexam) with emphasis on the specific area";

B- "Major in Arts with emphasis ( Hochschulexam) on Visual Arts, Dance, Music, and Theater";

C "Recognition of Art as an area of knowledge, communication, the history of its production, its object of study, its specific data in Arts, Dance, Music and Drama";

D "Knowledge about the structure of the curricular work of the area as well as the didactic aspects – the methodology of these areas in the classroom";

E "Availability to participate of continuing graduation 180 hour-meetings, distributed in two moments: presence and e-learning ";

F "Interest and availability to develop the activities proposed in the meetings of continuing education offered by the CENP";

G "Commitment with the curricular directives defined by the CENP".

The administration of that we call full-time school programs works with Teaching Supervisors, who are spread in approximately 90 Education Coordinations in the state, just about 21 of them in the city of Sao Paulo and two in the city of Campinas.

The full-time school program is going through external institutional evaluation by FIPE (Foundation for Applied Economic Research). However, there are no formal performance indicators of the students who take part on the activities, but a suggestion from the Directives that the evaluation be lead in the form of a process, using resources such as "teacher observations, student self-evaluation, comment cards and group evaluation".

The implementation of the full-time school emerged in the state of Sao Paulo after the launching of several projects and joint actions between some government secretaries and also the participation of the Third Sector, foundations and NGOs, to create activities for children, adolescents and young beyond the traditional schedule. The full-time school must be seen as one more step in this set of actions from the government aiming to extend the time of permanence at school.

Conclusion

This work, still of preliminary nature, displayed the process of insertion of Brazil, a BRIC with great territorial extension and enormous population, in a World Educational Order. Influenced at times by external ideas and ideals, at times by internal contingencies as great population increase in the urban areas, uneven industrialization, new division of work and lack of complete social protection systems, the country has experienced and implemented varied forms of full-time school.

The establishing of this type of school, either in the 30’s of XX century, either during the 80’s and 90’s or still in the beginning of the current century, as in the case of the federative state of Sao Paulo, has offered numerous challenges.

In the case of the model being implemented on the 480 schools in the state of Sao Paulo, the country’s richest and the most industrialized state, some aspects deserve prominence:

  1. The maintenance of the full time school only by projects support seems to be unable to supply the existing necessities; either from the point of view of the materials needed for the curricular workshops apart from the traditional schedule, either to the development and accomplishment of these workshops in adequate spaces. The schools need more than support from isolated projects. They need to be transformed into spaces that offer technical, logistic and pedagogical infrastructure to the success of the new activities, distributed in 8 hours.

  2. the absence of a criteria and clearer instruments of pupils evaluation, and the absence of a systematic supervision of the activities is a problem, because these activities can become much more an ample set of recreational activities for the children and young, than the aimed educative or formative activities, related to learning processes, which are really capable to add value to the person’s development. This hinders that the second and third previously mentioned objectives, among the four of the curricular directives, are reached. Being defined as a broad recreational and leisure set of the activities put at risk the professional legitimacy of the teachers who act there, for example, in the teaching of arts (Drama, dance, arts and music).

  3. The management of the program is carried out in at least two hierarchic levels. One corresponds to the general coordination, inside the State Secretary of the Education, composed by a group of three teachers with a long biographical path inside the secretary, and one of them already retired. The other level of management takes place by means of the performance of the education supervisors who operate in the 93 Education Coordinations of the State, 21 of them in the city of Sao Paulo and two in the city of Campinas. Each Education Coordination is responsible for a pre-determined number of schools. However, during the research did not become clear which is the frequency with which the supervisors visit the full-time schools, neither did the number of monthly meeting they attend with the general coordination in the State Secretary of the Education in the capital of the state.

  4. The lack of an institutional accredited assessment on the full-time school in the state of Sao Paulo, as well as the difficulty to access the documents of the program makes hard the works of collection and data analysis. In a 1 to 5 scale, the contact with the central and regional agencies that manage the program would be a "2", or "bad". Even though the research is still in a preliminary stage, the contacts with the central agency of management and the complexity to access the staff and the documents, only confirm what have already been said in numerous researches on the education systems in the country: There is a restricted character of democracy wich confirm a profile of a relatively free country, as already pointed in the Globalization Atlas and in other international human rights indicators.

  5. The main aspect to be discussed about the implementation of the full-time school in the state of Sao Paulo seems to be of the training of teachers. During the visits to the Education Coordinations, that are responsible for teacher training, it was not clear how were the 180 hours of continuing education distributed, or which is the number of monthly training hours in which the teachers are prepared to act in the curricular workshops. The nonexistence of financial motivation for conduction of activities in the curricular workshops can contribute to the substandard performance of these professionals. The controversy itself and the difficulties around the initial grounding (9394/96 LDB and PCNs) in the areas of Drama, dance, arts and music contribute to the difficulties of professionalization of the teachers who work in the curricular workshops of the full-time school.

Given that the character of this research on the implementation of the full-time school in the state of Sao Paulo is preliminary, it is important to state that the contents of the text result from a first work phase, considering that it will last up to 2010. Sponsored by the Brazilian foment bureaus, the research intends to investigate, in a more specific level, how and why Brazilian school has been creating massive programs during extra-curricular schedule for children and young, which have as main characteristic the body’s mobilization.

In this text, however, we tried to demonstrate that the "commonalities" engendered by "modern doctrines of progress-with-development and justice-with-equality", referring once more to Ramirez (2002), place Brazil in some kind of alignment with global models, internally generating action and demands such as the expanded journey for children and young in the education system of the country and the necessity of continuing qualification (continuing teacher training).

Until the moment, the main aspect seems to be the necessity to strengthen and give a more concrete direction to the qualification of teachers who work in the curricular workshops of the full-time school, what still does not seem to have been considered as central by the institutional actor, responsible for the establishment of this type of school in the federative state of Sao Paulo.

References

Bohnsack, Ralf. 2001: Die Dokumentarische Methode und Ihre Forschungspraxis. Opladen: Leske und Budrich.

Chaves, Miriam W. 2002: Educação Integral: uma proposta de inovação pedagógica na admisnitração escolar de Anísio Teixeira no Rio de Janeiro dos anos 30. IN: Cavaliere, Ana M.V & COLEHO,Ligia M.C.C (Orgs). Educação brasileira e(m) tempo integral. Petrópolis(RJ): Vozes.

Cunha, Luiz A. 1975: Educação e desenvolvimento social no Brasil. Rio: Francisco Alves.

Coelho, Ligia M.C.C. 2002: Formação continuada do professor e tempo integral: uma parceria estratégica na construção da educação integral. In : Cavaliere, Ana M.V & COLEHO,Ligia M.C.C (Orgs). Educação brasileira e(m) tempo integral. Petrópolis(RJ) : Vozes.

Cunha, Luiz Fernando 1991: Educação, Estado e democracia no Brasil. São Paulo: Cortez.

Elias, Norbert. 1994: A sociedade dos indivíduos. Rio de Janeiro: Zahar.

Heynemann, Stephen. 2005: A cooperação nternacional em matéria de educação no século XXI. In: DELORS, Jaqcques.(0rg.) a educação para o século XXI: questões e perguntas .Porto Alegre:Armed.

Goncalves, Antonio Sérgio 2007: Educação integral e escola de tempo integral. Cadernos do CENPEC 2, Educação Integral, 2º.semestre de 2006.Texto disponível em www.crmariocovas.sp.gov.br . Acesso em dezembro de 2007.

Le Monde Diplomatique. 2003: Atlas der Globalisierung. Berlin: Deutsche Fassung, Taz Verlag GMBH.

Luhmann, Niklas. 1995: Social Systems. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

Luhmann, Niklas. 1997: Die Gesellschaft der Gesellschaft. 2 vols. Frankfurt, Suhrkamp.

Monteiro, Ana M. 2002: A formação de professores nos CIEPS: a experiência do curso de atualização de professores para escolas de Horáio Integral no Estado do Ro de Janeiro – 1991-1994. In: In : Cavaliere, Ana M.V & COLEHO,Ligia M.C.C (Orgs). Educação brasileira e(m) tempo integral. Petrópolis(RJ) : Vozes.

Paro, Vitor et al. 1988: Escola de Tempo Integral. Desafio para o ensino público. São paulo: Autores associados.

Pochmann, Márcio. 1998: A inserção ocupacional e os empregos dos jovens. São Paulo: Associação Brasileira de Estudos do Trabalho.

Pochmann, Márcio. 1999: Emprego e desemprego juvenil no Brasil: as transformações dos anos 90. In: Organização Internacional do Trabalho (org.) Desemprego Juvenil no Brasil: em busca de opções à luz de algumas experiências internacionais. Brasília: OIT.

Pochmann, Márcio. 2001: O emprego na globalização: A nova divisão internacional do trabalho e o caminho que o Brasil escolheu. São Paulo: Boitempo Editorial.

Pochmann, Márcio. 2003: Outra cidade é possível. São Paulo: Cortez.

Pochmann, Márcio. 2004: Juventude em busca de novos caminhos no Brasil. In: Juventude e sociedade. São Paulo: Instituto Cidadania/ Fundação Perseu Abramo.

Ramirez, Francisco O. & MEYER, John W. 2002: National Curricula: World Models and National Historical Legacies. In: CARUSO, Marcelo & HEINZ-ELMAR, Tenorth (Hrgs). Internationalisierung- Internationalisation. Frankfurt/M: Lang,p. 91-107.

Schriewer, Jürgen. World System and Interrelationship Networks. The Internationalization of Education and the Role of Comparative Inquiry. In: POPKEWITZ, Thomas S.. Educational knowledge. Albany: Suny Press, pp.305-343.

Schriewer, Jürgen. 1999: Vergleich und Erklärung zwischen Kausalität und Komplexität. Berlin, Humboldt-Universität.

Schriewer, Jürgen. (Hrg.) 1999: Vergleich und Erklärung zwischen Kausalität und Komplexität. In: Diskurse und Entwicklungspfade. Der Gesellschaftsvergleich in den Geschichts- und Sozialwissenschaften. Frankfurt und New York: Comparative Education Centre, Humboldt Universität.

Schriewer, Jürgen. 2000: Beruflichkeit versus culture technique: Zur einer Soziogenese arbeitsbezogener Semantik. In: Wagner, Peter; Didry, Claude; Zimmermann, Benèdictè. Arbeit und Staat: Frankreich und Deutschland in Europäischer Perspective. Frankfurt am Main: Campus.

Schriewer, Jürgen. 2001: Formas de Externalização no Conhecimento Educacional. Lisboa: Cardernos Prestige 5 . Educa.

Secretaria da Educação do Estado de São Paulo 2006: Coordenadoria de Normas Pedagógicas. Diretrizes da Escola de Tempo Integral

Sen, Amartia. 2001: Desenvolvimento como Liberdade. S. Paulo: Cia das Letras.

Thiollent, Michel. 1985: Metodologia da Pesquisa-Ação. São Paulo: Cortez.

Thiollent, Michel. 1997: Pesquisa-Ação nas Organizações. São Paulo: Atlas.

Further documents:

UNDP: United Nations Development Program : www.undp.org ( Access jan/febr 2008)

PNUD ( Programa das Nações Unidas para o Desenvolvimento): www.pnud.org.br ( Access jan/febr 2008)

Estudo PISA: disponível em : www.Mec.gov.br ( Access jan/febr 2008)

UNESCO – Conference of New Delhi : www.unesco.org

DATA Basis UIS – UNESCO: www.uis.unesco.org ( jan/febr 2008)

DATA Basis for the Federal State of São Paulo: www.seade.gov.br ( jan/febr 2008).

City of God ( Film). Brasil, By Fernando Meireles.

The Elite Squad ( Film). Brasil. By José Padilha.

Author´s Address:
Prof Dr Rogério Adolfo de Moura
Universidade Estadual de Campinas
Rua Bertrand Russel
801 Barão Geraldo
Campinas - SP 
Brasilein CEP 13083-865
Email: rogermou@unicamp.br

urn:nbn:de:0009-11-24504